Feasibility of a multifaceted intervention to improve treatment initiation among patients diagnosed with TB using Xpert MTB/RIF testing in Uganda
Manabe, Yukari C.
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One in five patients diagnosed with TB in Uganda are not initiated on TB treatment within two weeks of diagnosis. We evaluated a multifaceted intervention for improving TB treatment initiation among patients diagnosed with TB using Xpert® MTB/RIF testing in Uganda. Methods This was a pre-post interventional study at one tertiary referral hospital. The intervention was informed by the COM-B model and included; i) medical education sessions to improve healthcare worker knowledge about the magnitude and consequences of pretreatment loss to follow-up; ii) modified laboratory request forms to improve recording of patient contact information; and iii) re-designed workflow processes to improve timeliness of sputum testing and results dissemination. TB diagnostic process and outcome data were collected and compared from the period before (June to August 2019) and after (October to December 2019) intervention initiation. Results In September 2019, four CME sessions were held at the hospital and were attended by 58 healthcare workers. During the study period, 1242 patients were evaluated by Xpert® MTB/ RIF testing at the hospital (679 pre and 557 post intervention). Median turnaround time for sputum test results improved from 12 hours (IQR 4–46) in the pre-intervention period to 4 hours (IQR 3–6) in the post-intervention period. The proportion of patients started on treatment within two weeks of diagnosis improved from 59% (40/68) to 89% (49/55) (difference 30%, 95% CI 14%-43%, p<0.01) while the proportion of patients receiving a same-day diagnosis increased from 7.4% (5/68) to 25% (14/55) (difference 17.6%, 95% CI 3.9%- 32.7%, p<0.01). Conclusion The multifaceted intervention was feasible and resulted in a higher proportion of patients initiating TB treatment within two weeks of diagnosis.
- Medical and Health Sciences