DDT and metabolites in fish from Lake Edward, Uganda
Kiremire, Bernard T.
Wandiga, Shem O.
Nyanzi, Steven A.
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This paper presents results based on determination of residue levels of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis[p-chlorophenyl]ethane (DDT) and its metabolites in five fish species from Rwenshama landing site on Lake Edward, Uganda. The residue levels were analysed by using a GC-ECD and confirmed by GC–MS. The DDT residues detected in fish samples from Lake Edward were p,p′-DDT, o,p′-DDT, p,p′-DDE, o,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDD and o,p′-DDD. All the analysed samples of fish presented mean DDT residues ranging from non-detectable levels to 68 μg kg−1 fresh weight. High levels of p,p′-DDT were detected in comparison to the metabolites (p,p′-DDE and p,p′-DDD). The detection of higher levels of p,p′-DDT than p,p′-DDE and p,p′-DDD, in most fish samples, suggests recent exposure of fish to DDT. Generally, most of the fish samples had residue levels below the maximum residue limits (MRL) recommended by FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission.