Comparative Evaluation of Agronomic Performance of Selected Landraces And Improved Groundnuts Cultivars In Central Uganda
Mulumba, John W.
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Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is important for providing food, income, livestock fodder for smallholder farmers, and improving soil fertility. However, groundnut yields on farmers’ fields in SubSaharan Africa are still very low due to various constraints. Several groundnut cultivars are available within the farmer’s domain but the adoption of these varieties favours landraces as opposed to improved varieties. Limited information is available on performance of commonly grown cultivars for guiding selection by different user groups (farmers, breeders and other users). This study was thus designed to determine the performance of selected landraces and improved groundnut varieties in Uganda. 23 groundnut lines with varying degrees of tolerance to a range of stresses were evaluated at two sites. Results showed significant (P ≤ 0.05 to P≤ 0.001) differences among genotypes for yield. Significant (P≤0.05 to P≤0.001) varietal differences were also observed between landraces and improved varieties for growth and physiological traits but not for pest and disease reaction. Clustering was not evident on the basis of either landraces or improved cultivars for pests and diseases incidences. However, associations of a mix of both groundnut classes of with particular diseases and/or pests were observed. Varieties such as India, Serenut 10, Kabonge, and DOK Tan associated with diseases such as rosette virus disease and its vector pest, the aphids. The results reported in this study shall be useful for driving the development of new cultivars owing to their good adaptability and acceptance thus the need to conserve and ensure sustainable use of these germplasm.