Intra-abdominal hypertension in severe burns: prevalence, incidence and mortality in a sub-Saharan African hospital
Monka Lekuya, Hervé
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Severe burns have been shown to be a risk factor for developing intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH). Fluid resuscitation practices used in burns management further predispose patients to intra-abdominal hypertension. The mortality associated with IAH in severe burns is estimated to be more than 74.5% once organ dysfunction occurs. Despite 95% of all burns occurring in Low and Middle income countries (LMIC), there is paucity of published data on this topic in sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives: To determine the prevalence, incidence, organ dysfunction and mortality of intra-abdominal hypertension among severe burns patients. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted over a 6 months period in the Burns Unit of Mulago National Referral Hospital. Patients of all age groups with burns ≥25% and 20% in adults and children respectively were recruited and followed up for 7 days or until death occurred. Patients with burns older than 48 hours were excluded. The outcome variables were intra-abdominal pressure, organ dysfunction and seven day mortality. Results: Of all the 335 burns patients admitted, 64 patients met the inclusion criteria. The overall prevalence of IAH was 57.8% while the prevalence in the children and adults was 54.5% and 61.3% respectively. The incidence of IAH was 13.1 cases/100 person days with the incidence in adults being twice that of the children. The one week mortality of patients with IAH was 82.6% with the risk of dying being 3.34 (p=0.0035) and seven day survival being less than 50%. Conclusion: One in two patients with severe burns exceeding 20% or 25% in children or adults respectively developed IAH. Adults had a higher prevalence and incidence of IAH. Mortality associated with IAH exceeded 80%.
- Medical and Health Sciences