Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences

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    Indigenous Knowledge in Agriculture: A case study of the challenges in sharing knowledge of past generations in a globalized context in Uganda.
    (IFLA General Conference and Council, 2007) Akullo, Diana; Kanzikwera, Rogers; Birungi, Pauline; Alum, Winnie; Aliguma, Lucy; Barwogeza, Margaret
    For centuries, farmers have planned agricultural production and conserved natural resources by adopting indigenous knowledge. The development of indigenous knowledge systems, including management of natural environment, has been a matter of survival to the people who generated these systems. A study was conducted in western Uganda to investigate indigenous agricultural practices using local knowledge by researchers. The challenges from the study include; integration of conventional research with indigenous knowledge, storage and selective sharing of knowledge by farmers. The study determined a positive correlation between improved technologies and assets and access to extension services. It revealed that indigenous knowledge are used by all farmer categories, its dominant, easily accessible, safe for man, animals and promotes social cohesion due to the mechanism of dissemination. It showed inefficiency of some indigenous knowledge methods. The study concludes by recommending that indigenous knowledge and practices are useful, must be integrated with contemporary research agenda to enable farmers compete and respond to global opportunities and challenges respectively.
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    Participatory selection and development of drought tolerant cassava varieties for farmers in marginal areas
    (RUFORUM., 2010) Osiru, D.S.O.; Balyejusa-Kizito, E.; Bisikwa, J.; Baguma, Y.; Turyagyenda, L.
    Most breeding experiments suffer from the disadvantage that the major stakeholders are not involved in the selection and development of the varieties. This scenario leads to poor adoption and diffusion of the resulting technologies. Participatory plant breeding reduces the chances of developing varieties which, for reasons unknown or overlooked by the breeder, are not acceptable to farmers. Farmers’ participation in research and decision making in variety selection enhances adoption. Through participatory variety selection (PVS), farmers also gain skills, information and knowledge about improved varieties. Most previous research in cassava have not involved farmers in the development of the technologies. This research will involve farmers in the participatory selection of farmer preferred cultivars for breeding to improve their Water Use Efficiency (WUE) in drought prone environments of Uganda.
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    SamBada in Uganda: landscape genomics study of traditional cattle breeds with a large SNP dataset
    (n The IALE 2013 European Congress, 2013) Sylvie, Stucki; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Colli, Licia; Kabi, Fredrick; Masembe, Charles; Negrini, Riccardo; Bruford, Michael W.; NEXTGEN, Consortium; Joost, Stéphane
    Since its introduction [9], landscape genomics has developed quickly with the increasing availability of both molecular and topoclimatic data. The current challenges involve processing large numbers of models and disentangling selection from demography. Several methods address the latter, either by estimating a neutral model from population structure [3] or by inferring simultaneously environmental and demographic effects [6]. Here we present Sam ada, an integrated software for landscape genomic analysis of large datasets. This tool was developed in the framework of NextGen with the objective of characterising traditional Ugandan cattle breeds using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) data.
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    Changes in Breeding Strategy for Needs in a Liberalized Cotton Industry in Uganda
    (SAARI, 2000) Serunjogi, L.K.; Mukasa, S.B.; Odeke, W.; Ochola, G.
    Commercial cotton (G. hirsutum L.) production has been based on BPA and SATU varieties, grown in two ecological zones. Both have had a strong world market, the stronger, longer and finer fiber BPA finding a different market niche. The collapse of the seed replacement system developed by the Department of Agriculture and liberalization of the cotton industry has resulted in problems of variety deterioration and mixing, leading to non-uniform and poor quality lint. These new challenges necessitated changes in breeding objectives and strategy. In 1993 breeding work was revived at SAARI with the strategy of developing a variety with good adaptation in the two zones for high yield, resistance to pests and high lint quality. Selections were made from existing and purified BPA and SATU stocks, and progenies arising from intraand inter-variety crosses. Variety checks and advanced lines of 9 SATU and 11 BPA stocks were compared, using single and combined analysis of variance over 8 locations and 3 years ordination and cluster analyses. At a three-group level, one group membership was consistent over the three seasons. The members expressed similar response patterns and good yield and constituted the elite entries. G x E interactions were not significant for yield but fiber characteristics of BPA entries were influenced by the environments. SATU and BPA lines performance was comparable except at locations of very low environmental index where SATU was better. Pattern analysis results indicate that the higher quality BPA which is also more bacterial blight resistant, can be grown in a wider range of environments than previously anticipated.
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    An analysis of competitiveness of lowland and upland rice production systems in Eastern Uganda
    (African Business and Development in a Changing Global Political Economy, 2012) Letaa, Emmanuel; Hyuha, Theodora S.; Ekere, William
    The paper analyses competiveness of upland and lowland rice production systems in Eastern Uganda. The results show that both systems are generally competitive with lowland rice being slightly more competitive than upland rice. Econometric results show that the most critical factors affecting competitiveness include: education, extension contact and farm size. The results therefore suggest that efforts to promote education (informal and formal), increasing frequency of extension contact and farm size will improve competiveness of both rice systems. Encouraging farmers to adopt available productivity enhancing technologies will increase productivity without encouraging them to encroaching on already degraded wetlands.
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    Small distances can keep bacteria at bay for days
    (National Academy of Sciences, 2014) Bunnika, Bram A. D. van; Ssematimba, Amos; Hagenaars, Thomas J.; Nodelijk, Gonnie; Haverkate, Manon R.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Hayden, Mary K.; Weinstein, Robert A.; Bootsma, Martin C. J.; De Jong, Mart C. M.
    Transmission of pathogens between spatially separated hosts, i.e., indirect transmission, is a commonly encountered phenomenon important for epidemic pathogen spread. The routes of indirect transmission often remain untraced, making it difficult to develop control strategies. Here we used a tailor-made design to study indirect transmission experimentally, using two different zoonotic bacteria in broilers. Previous experiments using a single bacterial species yielded a delay in the onset of transmission, which we hypothesized to result from the interplay between diffusive motion of infectious material and decay of infectivity in the environment. Indeed, a mathematical model of diffusive pathogen transfer predicts a delay in transmission that depends both on the distance between hosts and on the magnitude of the pathogen decay rate. Our experiments, carried out with two bacterial species with very different decay rates in the environment, confirm the difference in transmission delay predicted by the model. These results imply that for control of an infectious agent, the time between the distant exposure and the infection event is important. To illustrate how this can work we analyzed data observed on the spread of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in an intensive care unit. Indeed, a delayed vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus transmission component was identified in these data, and this component disappeared in a study period in which the environment was thoroughly cleaned. Therefore, we suggest that the impact of control strategies against indirect transmission can be assessed using our model by estimating the control measures’ effects on the diffusion coefficient and the pathogen decay rate.
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    Opportunities and Challenges for Reinforcing Organic Agriculture Research Capacity in East African Universities: Experience of Makerere University
    (African Organic Conference, 2015) Kabi, Fred; Nalubwama, Sylvia; Kabi, Samuel; Kwikiriza, Norman; Anecho, Stephen; Kiggundu, Muhammad
    There is a need for generation of new knowledge and skills to reinforce organic agriculture capacity to answer a variety of lingering questions about production, product quality, marketing, social economic implications on livelihoods and sustainable development through research. Generated knowledge is also needed to inform development and institutionalization of national policies on organic agriculture. Support to universities in collaboration with the private sector to popularize and commercialize organic agriculture through curriculum review and regional harmonization will help to produce a critical mass of competent graduates to promote organic agriculture. At Makerere University we believe great success in the subsector will only come from great support.
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    Opportunities and challenges for integrating dairy cattle into farms with certified organic pineapple production as perceived by smallholder farmers in Central Uganda
    (Organic Agriculture, 2019) Nalubwama, S.; Kabi, F.; Vaarst, M.; Kiggundu, M.; Smolders, G.
    A study was conducted in 2013 to assess opportunities and challenges of integrating dairy cattle into organic pineapple production in Uganda. Thirty organic pineapple farmers were interviewed using a semistructured questionnaire. The main dairy cattle management systems were tethering (73%) and zero grazing (27%). Average landholding was 1.74 ± 1.06 and 3.75 ± 2.70 ha for zero grazing and tethering systems, respectively. All farms were diversified with various livestock such as cattle, goats, sheep, pigs, and chickens and crops including pineapples, maize, coffee, bananas, beans, sweet potatoes, and cassava. The level of integration of dairy cattle into pineapple production depended on the distance of crop fields from the livestock enterprises. More farms (83%) with pineapple fields closer (< 0.5 km) to the homesteads were able to use cattle manure as fertilizer compared to homesteads (50%) with more distant fields (> 0.5 km). The distance to the homestead did not influence 30% of the farmers who used crop residues for feeding dairy cattle. Farmers perceived cattle diseases and feed scarcity to be the major challenges in dairy farming. The sources of risk on the farms were perceived to be erratic rainfall, limited knowledge, and market for organic products. Majority of farmers (77%) expressed willingness to convert to organic dairy production. Availability of markets for organic dairy products (36%) and reduction of external input use (26%) were the main reasons for farmers’ willingness to convert. Integrating dairy cattle with pineapple production is an opportunity for closed nutrient cycles and income diversification. However, knowledge, access to inputs, and organized markets are needed as incentive for conversion to organic dairy production.
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    Modeling the spatial distribution of Theileriaparva(Theiler 1904), causative agent of East Coast Fever disease in cattle
    (NEXTGEN Consortium, 2015) Vajana, Elia; Colli, Licia; Milanesi, Marco; Bomba, Lorenzo; Negrini, Riccardo; Capomaccio, Stefano; Eufemi, Elisa; Kabi, Fred; Muwanika, Vincent; Masembe, Charles; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo
    The ileriaparvais a protozoan emo-parasite affecting sub-Saharan Bostaurusand Bosindicuspopulations. It is the causative agent of East Coast Fever, a major cattle disease causing the death of ~1.1∙106 animals per year and an annual loss of ~168∙106USD (Norvalet. al., 1992). T. parvageographical occurrence is bound to the presence of susceptible bovine host populations, the main tick vector Rhipicephalusappendiculatus(Neumann 1901), as well assuitable ecological conditions for the survival of both the vector and the parasite. While tick habitat requirements have been extensively investigated (see e.g. Cumming, 2002), studies focusing solely on the environmental conditions determining the parasite occurrence are still lacking.
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    Herbage Biomass Production and Nutritive Value of Morus alba and Calliandra calothyrsus Harvested at Different Cutting Frequencies
    (University of Kentucky UKnowledge, 2008) Kabi, Fred; Bareeba, F. B.
    Due to their high nutritive value and positive effects on rumen function, tree and shrub foliage has been recognized as potentially high quality feed for ruminants for supplying protein and minerals (Van et al., 2005). Despite the increasing popularity of C. calothyrsus and M. alba as alternative feed resources, especially in the dry season, there is little information on the influence of cutting frequency on the herbage yield and nutritive value. The objective of the study was to examine effects of harvesting frequency of these tree forages on biomass yield and nutritive value
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    Genomic diversity and Population Structure of Ugandan Taurine and Zebuine Cattle Breeds
    (XXI ASPA Congress, 2015) Colli, Licia; Milanesi, Marco; Bomba, Lorenzo; Vajana, Elia; Negrini, Riccardo; Eufemi, Elisa; Capomaccio, Stefano; Mazza, Raffaele; Stella, Alessandra; Joost, Stephane; Stucki, Sylvie; Taberlet, Pierre; Pompanon, François; Kabi, Fred; Muwanika, Vincent; Masembe, Charles; Ajmone Marsan, Paolo
    An extensive sampling of Ugandan cattle was carried out in the course of the European project Nextgen to identify possible associations between geno types, livestock endemic diseases and environmental variables.
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    Genomic diversity and disease prevalence in Ugandan cattle
    (ReColAd Workshop, 2015) Colli, Licia; Bomba, Lorenzo; Milanesi, Marco; Vajana, Elia; Negrini, Riccardo; Eufemi, Elisa; Capomaccio, Stefano; Mazza, Raffaele; Stella, Alessandra; Joost, Stephane; Stucki, Sylvie; Taberlet, Pierre; Pompanon, François; Kabi, Fred; Muwanika, Vincent; Masembe, Charles; Ajmone Marsan, Paolo
    Ugandan cattle are represented by three main types: the long-horned Ankole, the short-horned zebu, and the Ankole-zebu crosses called “Nganda”. In the course of the EU-funded project Nextgen, Ugandan cattle have been extensively sampled over the whole country to investigate the association between genotypes and resistance/tolerance to endemic diseases (e.g. tsetse fly- and tick-born diseases).
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    Factors Influencing Adoption of Cattle Excreta Management Practices for Improved Elephant Grass (Pennisetum purpureum) Production by Smallholder Dairy Farmers
    (IGC/IRC Conference, 2021) Kabi, Fred; Bareeba, F. B.
    Livestock in East Africa have been reported to play a valuable role in sustainable agricultural systems (Bebe , 2003 ; Winrock International , 1992) where together with crops they make sustainable natural resource use possible ( Lekasi et al . , 2001) . Haque et al . ( 1995) reported that animal excreta plays an important role in maintaining cropland productivity in Sub‐ Saharan Africa , and most smallholder farmers in Uganda will continue to rely on the exploitation of this natural resource for maintaining soil fertility . With the ever increasing human population and escalating demand for foods of animal origin , sustainable elephant grass production is of paramount importance among smallholder zero‐grazing ( intensive dairy ) farmers in peri‐urban areas of Uganda . However , in Uganda , elephant grass is becoming less productive both in dry matter (DM ) yield and nutritive quality with successive harvesting . The decline in quality and quantity of elephant grass has been attributed to failure by the farmers to adopt sustainable livestock production practices ( Katuromunda et al . , 2001) . Therefore , the objective of this study was to assess factors that influence adoption of cattle excreta management practices for improved elephant grass production among the intensive dairy farmers .
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    Animal husbandary practices of smallholder organic farmers in Uganda: Challenges and future prospects
    (Building Organic Bridges, 2014) Nalubwama, Sylvia; Kiggundu, Muhammad; Vaarst, Mette
    Organic agriculture development in Uganda has been mainly in crop production. Currently certified organic livestock production is non-existent. However, some of the existing animal husbandry practices of smallholder organic farmers are similar to those recommended in organic animal husbandry. A survey to understand these practices and challenges was conducted among ninety certified organic pineapple farmers in two districts using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results indicated that organic farmers kept a diversity of livestock species. Most organic farm (81%) had cattle. Other species owned were goats, pigs and chicken. Farmers mainly kept indigenous livestock breeds and majority (90%) used natural mating as a form of animal breeding. Farmers in Luwero district kept a significantly higher (P< 0.001) number of cattle (mean 2.3) than in Kayunga district (mean 1.6). Sixty four percent of farmers had no housing for their livestock. Natural pastures and crop residues formed bulk of feed for ruminants and pigs. Tethering was the commonest form of management system in ruminants (90%). Pigs (60%) and chicken (95%) were under free range system. There was a significant relationship (P= 0.047) between breed of cattle and grazing system. Major challenges of livestock production were inadequate feeds, pests and diseases. Selection of tolerant breeds and use of herbal concoctions were the adopted coping strategies. Majority of farmers (100%) resorted to use of synthetic chemical drugs in case of failure of these strategies. The future development of organic animal husbandry among smallholder organic farmers lies in developing sustainable research based technologies/ solutions to tackle existing and future challenges, investing in infrastructural development as well as improving farmer’s knowledge.
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    Stunning and animal welfare from Islamic and scientific perspectives
    (Meat science, 2013) Nakyinsige, K.; Che Man, Y.B.; Aghwan, Zeiad A.; Zulkifli, I.; Goh, Y.M.; Abu Bakar, F.; Al-Kahtani, H.A.; Sazili, A.Q.
    The transformation of an animal into pieces fit for human consumption is a very important operation. Rather than argue about halal slaughter without stunning being inhumane or stunning being controversial from the Islamic point of view, we discuss slaughter, stunning and animal welfare considering both Islamic and animal welfare legislation requirements. With the world Muslim population close to two billion, the provision of halal meat for theMuslim community is important both ethically and economically.However, fromthe animalwelfare standard point of view, a number of issues have been raised about halal slaughterwithout stunning, particularly, about stressful methods of restraint and the latency of the onset of unconsciousness. This paper sets out to, discuss themethods of stunning that are acceptable by Islamic authorities, highlight the requirements for stunning to be acceptable in Islam and suggest practical ways to improve the humanness of slaughter.
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    Influence of gas stunning and halal slaughter (no stunning) on rabbits welfare indicators and meat quality
    (Meat science, 2014) Nakyinsige, K.; Sazili, A.Q.; Zulkifli, I.; Goh, Y.M.; Abu Bakar, F.; Sabow, A.B.
    Animals may be at great risk of fear during the procedures that take them to new situations, such as pre-slaughter handling, which implies an important additional stress (Duncan, 2004). It is important to note that each animal perceives, at slaughter, several signals of danger, such as odours, sights and sounds. In fact for these animals, vision, audition, and particularly olfaction constitute a very rich perceptive universe which is used to regulate social and sexual behaviours and to ensure the survival in dangerous situations (Micera, Albrizio, Surdo, Moramarco, & Zarrilli, 2010). In order to determine the changes produced a few seconds after receiving the stimulus, as is the case at the moment prior to slaughter, it is important to evaluate the changes produced within the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system, with the liberation of catecholamines to the bloodstream.
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    Halal Meat: A Niche Product in the Food Market
    (IPEDR, 2012) Nakyinsige, K.; Che Man, Y. B.; Sazili, A. Q.; Zulkifli, I.; Fatimah, A. B.
    Religion is a fundamental factor in determining food avoidance, taboos and special regulation with respect to meat. A quarter of the world population is made up Muslims. Muslims have unique dietary requirements and are very keen to uphold the tenets of their religion. This group of consumers is scattered around all countries of the world and have a high purchasing power estimated at US$ 2.1 trillion. In order to tap into this lucrative market, the food industry must understand the Muslim requirements for halal food, particularly meat and meat products. Unlike other consumer groups whose purchasing decision is guided by aspects of lifestyle, culture, diet and health concerns, the purchasing decision of Muslims is normally guided by the halal status of the meat. Many Muslims may check for the halal logo of the product before even checking the expiry date. Although the halal status of meat is often believed to be equivalent to the application of halal slaughter, practically it is much more than that. The production of halal meat consists of many critical control points from farm to table in order to ensure that the meat is produced in the acceptable manner and there is no cross contamination with non-halal materials at all unit operations. Unfortunately, the food industry is often unaware of the requirements of the Muslim consumer or often indulges in adulteration for monetary benefits. Halal certifying authorities need robust analytical techniques in areas where fraud is most likely to occur. This paper sets out to highlight the requirements of the halal food chain as well as give an overview of the methods used to authenticate halal meat products.
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    Proceedings of the International Conference on Agro-Biotechnology, Biosafety and Seed Systems in Developing Countries
    (Science Foundation for Livelihoods and Development, Kampala, 2011)
    The International Conference on Agro-Biotechnology, Biosafety and Seed Systems in Developing Countries was held in Kampala during March 8-11 2010 at the Imperial Royale Hotel and attracted over 150 participants form various countries in Africa, Europe and North America. Over 50 presentations were made on various aspects of biotechnology including governance, biosafety, genetic engineering for crops, seed systems, communication, and industrial applications, among others. Thirteen papers were submitted for publication after conference and these covered nearly all themes of biotech above. The potential role of biotechnology, specifically modern biotechnology in contributing to development has been the subject of debate for more than fifteen years in developing countries. With the exception of newly industrialised countries such as India, Brazil and China, many developing countries have not fully tapped the potential of using modern biotech in agriculture, only South Africa, Burkina Faso, and Egypt have to date commercialised products of modern biotech in agriculture on the African continent. Papers here show the potential, challenges, options, and the need for an integrated approach covering communication, biosafety, and development of relevant biotechnologies if developing countries, particularly in Africa, are optimise biotech tools in national and regional development. For the first time ever, this conference also addressed the closely intertwined areas of biotechnology research and development, biosafety, regulation and seed development and delivery in the context of genetic engineering revolution. After the conference, the resolutions the stakeholders were presented in a communiqué (see page 85) that was widely circulated in different media outlets and direclty among stakeholders through variuos communication channels. The general recommendation from the conference was the call for African governments to take bold steps and fast track decisions geared at establishing feasible regulatory regimes for development of biotechnology while at the same time ensuring biosafety for the benefit of their citizens.
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    Management of Credit Facilitation for Agricultural Cooperatives in Uganda: evidence From a Collaborative Approach
    (BANKERS, 2021) Ahabyoona Mugisha, Faith; Lubega, Jude T.; Kibukamusoke, Martha
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    Impacts of Agricultural Training on Young Farmers in Uganda
    (AIAEE, 2008) Mugisha, Johnny; Owens, Michelle
    The District Agricultural Training and Information Centres (DATICs) component has been providing agricultural production training, information and skills to farmers and out-ofschool youths; promoting linkages between farmers, agricultural advisory services and agricultural research. To supplement the financial donor support, the DATICs have been involved in commercial production to transform into autonomous training and information centres. This was a cross-section study that involved interviews, group and key informant discussions and observations utilizing structured questionnaires. Qualitative data were analyzed by frequencies and percentages while quantitative data were subjected to a descriptive statistical analysis. A “before and after” analysis was used to compare what the graduates were doing before and after the training. From the study findings, the following recommendations could be used to address the gaps and challenges in achieving DATICs objectives: The DATICs should identify more and viable income generating avenues; There is need to design Farmer School programs and courses/modules to cater for a diversity of clients including opening up to other clients who may not be members of youth clubs but able to pay the fees.; A day-scholars option could be explored and more females should be encouraged to attend the training; The offered courses/modules could be formalized to be recognized by the Ministry of Education and Sports; and national offices need to work closely with DATICs to identify and plan viable projects/program for sustainability of the DATICs.