Polychlorinated biphenyls and hexachlorocyclohexanes in sediments and fish species from the Napoleon Gulf of Lake Victoria, Uganda

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Date
2014
Authors
Ssebugere, Patrick
Sillanpää, Mika
Kiremire, Bernard T.
Kasozi, Gabriel N.
Wang, Pu
Sojinu, Samuel O.
Otieno, Peter O.
Zhu, Nali
Zhu, Chaofei
Zhang, Haidong
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Publisher
Science of the Total Environment
Abstract
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were analyzed in surface sediments (b30 cm depth) and two fish species: Nile perch (Lates niloticus) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The samples were collected from the Napoleon Gulf on the northern shore of Lake Victoria. The analysis was done using a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer for PCBs and a GC equipped with an electron capture detector for HCHs. Total (Σ) PCBs in the muscles of fish varied widelywith mean values ranging from41 to 670 pg g−1 lipidweight (lw). The PCB levels in L. niloticuswere significantly greater than those in O. niloticus. The large variability observed in the datawas attributed to differences in feeding habits and trophic levels. While O. niloticus is a filter-eating fish species feeding mainly on phytoplankton and zooplankton, L. niloticus have predatory feeding behaviors and prefer a diet of live fish and, therefore, are more prone to bioaccumulate contaminants. The mean PCB concentrations in the sediments varied from 362 to 848 pg g−1 dry weight. Variations in PCB levels were observed from one study site to another, this was attributed to the nature and particle size of the sediments. HCH isomers were detected in fish at mean concentrations of up to 45,900 pg g−1 lw. The PCB and HCH concentrations were lower than those from previous studies elsewhere in literature and were below the maximum residue limits set by the European Commission and FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission, implying that the fish was fit for human consumption.
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Keywords
PCBs, HCHs, Fish, Sediments, Napoleon Gulf, Lake Victoria
Citation
Ssebugere, P., Sillanpää, M., Kiremire, BT, Kasozi, GN, Wang, P., Sojinu, SO, ... & Jiang, G. (2014). Polychlorinated biphenyls and hexachlorocyclohexanes in sediments and fish species from the Napoleon Gulf of Lake Victoria, Uganda. Science of the Total Environment , 481 , 55-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.02.039
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