Efficacy and Safety of Three Regimens for the Prevention of Malaria in Young HIV-Exposed Ugandan Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TS) prophylaxis is recommended for HIV-exposed infants until breastfeeding ends and HIV infection has been excluded. Extending prophylaxis with a focus on preventing malaria may be beneficial in high transmission areas. We investigated three regimens for the prevention of malaria in young HIV-exposed children. Tororo, Uganda, a rural area with intense, year-round, malaria transmission. 200 infants aged 4-5 months enrolled and 186 randomized after cessation of breastfeeding and confirmed to be HIV uninfected (median 10 months of age). No chemoprevention, monthly sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), daily TS, or monthly dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) given from randomization to 24 months of age. The primary outcome was the incidence of malaria during the intervention period. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of hospitalization, diarrheal illness, or respiratory tract infection; prevalence of anemia and asymptomatic parasitemia; measures of safety; and incidence of malaria over 1 year after the intervention was stopped. During the intervention, the incidence of malaria in the no chemoprevention group was 6.28 episodes per person-year at risk. Protective efficacy was 69% (95% CI, 53-80%, p<0.001) for DP, 49% (95% CI, 23-66%, p=0.001) for TS, and 9% for SP (95% CI, −35 to 38%, p=0.65). There were no significant differences in any secondary outcomes, with the exception of a lower prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia in the DP arm. Monthly chemoprevention with DP was safe and associated with a significant reduction in malaria in young HIV-exposed children.
HIV-exposed uninfected infants, malaria chemoprevention, dihydroartemsinin piperaquine, trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis, sulfadoxine pyrimethamine
Kamya, M. R., Kapisi, J., Bigira, V., Clark, T. D., Kinara, S., Mwangwa, F., ... & Dorsey, G. (2014). Efficacy and safety of three regimens for the prevention of malaria in young HIV-exposed Ugandan children: a randomized controlled trial. AIDS (London, England), 28(18), 2701.https://doi.org/10.1097%2FQAD.0000000000000497