Risk Factors Associated with HIV Infection in Uganda

Risk factor data were collected in 1,328 inpatients and outpatients in 1987in 15hospitals throughout Uganda; 42010 were positive for HIV antibodies by ELISA. Seropositivity was associated with urban residence, sexually transmitted diseases (STD), number of sex partners, and sex for payment or with a person with an AIDS-like illness. Homosexuality and intravenous drug abuse, recognized risk factors in western countries, were not seen as risk factors. By multivariate analysis, urban residence and sex for payment were not independently associated with infection. Among females, number of sex partners, sex with a person with an AIDS-like illness, and numbers of episodes of STDs were significantly associated with seropositivity. In males, similar associations were seen, although number of reported sex partners was not independently associated with infection. These findings support the view that heterosexual contact is the predominant mode of transmission in Uganda and suggest that the main risk factors relate to high-risk heterosexual behavior.
Risk Factors, HIV Infection, Uganda
Berkley, S. F., Widy-Wirski, R., Okware, S. I., Downing, R., Linnan, M. J., White, K. E., & Sempala, S. (1989). Risk factors associated with HIV infection in Uganda. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 160(1), 22-30.