Prevalence, distribution and factors associated with modern contraceptive use among women of reproductive age in Uganda: evidence from UDHS 2016

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Date
2024-07
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BMC
Abstract
Unintended pregnancies pose significant health risks, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where millions of cases are recorded annually, disproportionately affecting adolescent women. Utilization of modern contraceptives is crucial in managing fertility and reducing unintended pregnancies, abortions, and associated health complications. This study aimed to assess the prevalence, distribution and factors associated with modern contraceptives utilization among women aged 15-49 in Uganda.BACKGROUNDUnintended pregnancies pose significant health risks, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where millions of cases are recorded annually, disproportionately affecting adolescent women. Utilization of modern contraceptives is crucial in managing fertility and reducing unintended pregnancies, abortions, and associated health complications. This study aimed to assess the prevalence, distribution and factors associated with modern contraceptives utilization among women aged 15-49 in Uganda.The study used secondary data from the 2016 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS). The study sample comprise of 9,235 women aged 15-49 who used any method to prevent pregnancy in the five years preceding 2016 UDHS survey. The outcome variable for this study is utilization of modern contraceptives. Univariate, bivariate, and multilevel binary logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between individual and contextual factors on the modern contraceptive use among women aged 15-49 in Uganda. Choropleth mapping and network analysis in ArcGIS 10.8.2 was used to visualize spatial distribution of modern contraceptive use and measure community access to health facilities respectively.METHODSThe study used secondary data from the 2016 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS). The study sample comprise of 9,235 women aged 15-49 who used any method to prevent pregnancy in the five years preceding 2016 UDHS survey. The outcome variable for this study is utilization of modern contraceptives. Univariate, bivariate, and multilevel binary logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between individual and contextual factors on the modern contraceptive use among women aged 15-49 in Uganda. Choropleth mapping and network analysis in ArcGIS 10.8.2 was used to visualize spatial distribution of modern contraceptive use and measure community access to health facilities respectively.The prevalence of modern contraceptive use was 53.19% (n = 4,919) in Uganda, with significant spatial variation by district. Higher prevalence (23.18%) was observed among women aged 20-29 compared to adolescents (4.1%). Only 21.9% of married women reported using modern contraceptives. At the individual-level, the factors that positively influenced use of modern contraceptives included: women's marital status, wealth index and level of education while sex of the household head, ever terminated a pregnancy and religion negatively affected the use of modern contraceptives. At community-level, community access to health facilities was found to have negative influence on the use of modern contraceptives among women. In communities where women frequently visited health facilities in the 12 months preceding the survey, the use of modern contraceptives reduced by 3.9%. Accessibility analysis revealed challenges, with women in northeastern districts (rural districts) facing travel times exceeding four hours to reach health facilities.RESULTSThe prevalence of modern contraceptive use was 53.19% (n = 4,919) in Uganda, with significant spatial variation by district. Higher prevalence (23.18%) was observed among women aged 20-29 compared to adolescents (4.1%). Only 21.9% of married women reported using modern contraceptives. At the individual-level, the factors that positively influenced use of modern contraceptives included: women's marital status, wealth index and level of education while sex of the household head, ever terminated a pregnancy and religion negatively affected the use of modern contraceptives. At community-level, community access to health facilities was found to have negative influence on the use of modern contraceptives among women. In communities where women frequently visited health facilities in the 12 months preceding the survey, the use of modern contraceptives reduced by 3.9%. Accessibility analysis revealed challenges, with women in northeastern districts (rural districts) facing travel times exceeding four hours to reach health facilities.Utilization of modern contraceptives are essential for promoting women's health and well-being, particularly concerning maternal healthcare. This study highlights disparities in modern contraceptive use across age groups and the districts, emphasizing the need for targeted interventions. Policymakers and stakeholders must prioritize strategies that promote utilization of modern contraceptives and maternal healthcare services to address these disparities effectively. Such efforts are crucial for improving reproductive health outcomes and reducing the burden of unintended pregnancies and related complications in Uganda.CONCLUSIONUtilization of modern contraceptives are essential for promoting women's health and well-being, particularly concerning maternal healthcare. This study highlights disparities in modern contraceptive use across age groups and the districts, emphasizing the need for targeted interventions. Policymakers and stakeholders must prioritize strategies that promote utilization of modern contraceptives and maternal healthcare services to address these disparities effectively. Such efforts are crucial for improving reproductive health outcomes and reducing the burden of unintended pregnancies and related complications in Uganda. MEDLINE - Academic
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Towongo, Moses Festo, and Matlhogonolo Kelepile. 'Prevalence, Distribution and Factors Associated with Modern Contraceptive use among Women of Reproductive Age in Uganda: Evidence from UDHS 2016', Contraception and Reproductive Medicine, vol. 9/no. 1, (2024), pp. 32-17.