Hypoglycemic, Antihyperglycemic, and Toxic Effects of Physalis peruviana L. Aqueous and Methanolic Leaf Extracts in Wistar Rats

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Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
Physalis peruviana L. (Solanaceae) is a plant widely used in traditional medicine systems to manage various diseases, including diabetes mellitus, which remains a global health problem in developing and developed countries. This study aimed to scientifically evaluate its antidiabetic bioactivity and short-term toxicity in rats. Methods: We prepared various doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts for the antidiabetic study, and a dose of 2000 mg/Kg was prepared for the acute toxicity test. The first group that evaluated the hypoglycemic effect consisted of forty normoglycemic Wistar rats aged 7–8 months old with a weighted average of 265.8 ± 24.6 g. The second group consisted of intraperitoneal glucose-loaded male animals to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect. The third group contained two groups of normoglycemic female rats (n = 3), aged 3 and 4 months old (weight average: 187.45 ± 14.82 g), treated for 14 days with aqueous and methanolic extracts (2 g/kg b.w) to assess mortality and toxic effects. Blood samples were taken at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min posttreatment in hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic evaluations. Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg) was used as a reference drug. The control animals in each group did not receive the extracts. Results: In hypoglycemic rats, 100 mg/kg of aqueous and methanolic extracts significantly lowered the fasting blood glucose level by 13.92% (p < 0.0001) and 21.95% (p < 0.01), respectively, compared to the control group. In glucose tolerance test group, methanolic extracts significantly reduced hyperglycemia by 54.55% (p < 0.0001), 46.50% (p < 0.0001), 39.78% (p < 0.0001) at 400, 200 and 100 mg/kg b.w, respectively, compared to control; aqueous extract 400 mg/kg reduced hyperglycemia by 39.44% (p < 0.05). At the 2000 mg/kg dose, leaf aqueous and methanolic extracts did not show any signs of intoxication and mortality. Conclusion: Crude aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of P. peruviana ambrosioides appeared safe at 2000 mg/kg and have bioactivity in controlling the blood glucose levels, supporting their use in treating diabetes.
Physalis peruviana, leaf extracts, antidiabetic bioactivity, toxicity, rats
Kasali, F. M., Kadima, J. N., Tusiimire, J., & Agaba, A. G. (2022). Hypoglycemic, Antihyperglycemic, and Toxic Effects of Physalis peruviana L. Aqueous and Methanolic Leaf Extracts in Wistar Rats. Journal of Experimental Pharmacology, 14, 185-193.