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dc.contributor.authorOnyutha, Charles
dc.contributor.authorTaata Akobo, Josephine
dc.contributor.authorMubialiwo, Ambrose
dc.date.accessioned2022-09-17T18:16:50Z
dc.date.available2022-09-17T18:16:50Z
dc.date.issued2022
dc.identifier.citationOnyutha, C., Akobo, J. T., & Mubialiwo, A. (2022). Tap versus Bottled Water in Kampala, Uganda: Analyses of Consumers’ Perception alongside Bacteriological and Physicochemical Quality. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/9336247en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://doi.org/10.1155/2022/9336247
dc.identifier.urihttps://nru.uncst.go.ug/handle/123456789/4794
dc.description.abstractIn Uganda, tap water is always ensured to be potable. However, people are not sure whether tap water is generally safe for drinking without being boiled. Conversely, bottled water consumption is on the increase in Uganda. e main problem lies in the cost of energy for boiling tap water or purchasing bottled water. is study analyzed results of laboratory tests and consumers’ perception for comparison of tap and bottled water in Nakawa division, Kampala. Tap water was sampled at four representative locations. At least 16 di erent brands of bottled water were considered. e top four most consumer-preferred bottled water brands were selected for further analysis. In our study, 28.8%, 6.06%, and 13.64% of the 142 respondents indicated that bottled water had taste, color, and smell, respectively. However, 27.5%, 25.4%, and 34.5% of the respondents agreed that tap water had taste, color, and smell, respectively. Both tap and bottled water met the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for pH, total dissolved solids, chloride, copper, sodium, sulfate, and nitrate. However, a tap water sample was found to contain Coliform bacteria. In this line, affected communities need to thoroughly boil the raw tap water to kill the pathogens. All tap water samples yielded iron concentrations above the WHO recommended limit. Student's t-tests showed that tap and bottled water samples were significantly (p < 0.05) different with respect to total dissolved solids, pH, chloride, calcium, magnesium, iron, sodium, sulfate, and nitrate. We emphasize the need for routine maintenance of the water distribution system to check for leakages which can be potential source of contamination .en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherJournal of Environmental and Public Healthen_US
dc.subjectBottled Wateren_US
dc.subjectUgandaen_US
dc.subjectConsumers’ Perceptionen_US
dc.subjectBacteriologicalen_US
dc.subjectPhysicochemical Qualityen_US
dc.titleTap versus Bottled Water in Kampala, Uganda: Analyses of Consumers’ Perception alongside Bacteriological and Physicochemical Qualityen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US


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