Anthelmintic Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes in goats and Evaluation of FAMACHA Diagnostic Marker in uganda
Akiiki, Chris Rubaire
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Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are a challenge to goat production globally causing reduced growth, morbidity and mortality. We report here results of the first nation-wide anthelmintic resistance (AR) study and validation of assessment of clinical anaemia with FAMACHA eye scores in goats in Uganda. From August to December 2012 the efficacy of albendazole (7.5mg/kg), levamisole (10.5mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.3mg/kg) against strongyle nematodes was tested on 33 goat farms in Soroti, Gulu, Mpigi, Mbarara and Ssembabule districts of Uganda. Altogether 497 goats were subjected to a total of 45 different faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT), each involving 5–20 goats. On one farm all substances were tested. Faecal and blood samples were collected and FAMACHA eye scores evaluated on the day of treatment and 15 days later. A questionnaire survey was conducted on frequency, type and dose of anthelmintics used, farm size and grazing management system. Examination of infective third stage larvae (L3) from pooled faecal cultures demonstrated Haemonchus to be the predominant genus (>75%). Resistance to at least one anthelmintic group was detected on 61% of the 33 farms and in 49% of the 45 test groups. Prevalence of resistance to ivermectin, levamisole and albendazole was respectively 58%, 52% and 38%. Correlation between pre-treatment packed cell volume determinations and FAMACHA scores (r498=−0.89) was significant. Paddock grazing system (Odds ratio 4.9, 95% CI 1.4–17.3) and large farm size of >40 goats (odds ratio 4.4, 95% CI 1.2–16.1) were significant predictors of AR. In all districts, resistance to all three anthelmintics was higher on large-scale goat farms practising mostly paddock grazing. Interestingly, resistance to albendazole, the most commonly used anthelmintic in Uganda, was lower than that to ivermectin and levamisole. We recommend adaptation of FAMACHA to goats to help restrict anthelmintic treatment to heavily infected individuals. This will limit selection pressure and hence delay development of anthelmintic resistance.