Using dietary serving scores to assess adequacy of dietary intake and associated factors among adult patients with type 2 diabetes in Kampala: a cross-sectional study
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Background/objectives: Adequate dietary intake for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients is central in preventing or delaying onset of diabetes related complications. This study used dietary serving scores (DSS) to determine the adequacy of dietary intake and associated factors among patients with T2DM in Kampala. Subjects/methods: A facility based cross-sectional study among adult T2DM patients attending diabetes clinics attached to health care facilities in Kampala was conducted. Semi structured demographic and 7-day Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ) were used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, environmental factors and dietary intake respectively. Dietary intake was computed using Dietary Serving Scores (DSS) and was grouped into two: "adequate dietary intake (DSS of 78 and above)" and "inadequate dietary intake (DSS below 78)". Multiple linear regression was used to assess correlates of dietary intake. Results: Out of the 400 participants, only 49 (12.25%; 95% CI: 9.04, 15.46) were classified as having adequate dietary intake. After adjusting for potential confounders, unmarried individuals (β = -2.367; p = 0.024) and those who are salaried (β = -3.162; p = 0.012) or self-employed (β = -4.214; p = 0.001) had significantly lower mean DSS compared to their respective counterparts. T2DM patients who attended Nsambya hospital diabetes clinic had significantly higher mean DSS (β = 3.698; p = 0.022) compared to those who receive treatment in Lubaga hospital. Conclusions: The prevalence of adequate dietary intake among patients with T2DM attending health facilities in Kampala is very low. More efforts are needed to educate patients on better dietary choices aligned with disease management.
- Medical and Health Sciences