Contraceptive Use and Pregnancy Incidence among VOICE Participants in Uganda.
Fowler, G. Mary
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Background: Vitamin D (VitD) is an endogenous immunomodulator that could protect from HIV-1 infection. We recently found that high levels of VitD and its receptor are associated with natural resistance to HIV-1 infection; up-regulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, and the induction of defensins in mucosa might be part of the mechanisms involved in this association. However, several other molecules might be involved in this protection. Methods: To further explore this issue, a case-control study using samples of 58 HIV-1-exposed but seronegative (HESN) individuals, and 59 non-exposed healthy controls (HCs) was carried out. mRNA relative units (RU) of APOBEC3G, ELAFIN, TRIM5alfa, SAMHD1 and Catelicidin in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), oral and genital mucosa were quantified by qRT-PCR. Circulating VitD and mRNA levels of VDR were previously reported and used for correlations. Results: HESNs had significantly higher mRNA RU of the antiviral molecules APOBEC3G and ELAFIN in PBMCs and SAMHD1 and Catelicidin in oral mucosa compared to HCs. Positive correlation between VDR and ELAFIN mRNA in PBMCs of HESNs was found. Conclusions: These results suggest at high levels of APOBEC3G, ELAFIN, SAMHD1, and Catelicidin are associated with natural resistance to HIV-1 infection. VitD may be upregulating the expression of ELAFIN as observed for other anti-HIV-1 molecules. However, further studies are required to define causal associations.
- Medical and Health Sciences