Low Bone Mass In People Living With HIV On Long-Term Anti-Retroviral Therapy: A Single Center Study In Uganda
Mwaka, Erisa Sabakaki
Munabi, Ian Guyton
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This study set out to determine the prevalence of low bone mass following long-term exposure to antiretroviral therapy in Ugandan people living with HIV.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 199 people living with HIV that had been on anti-retroviral therapy for at least 10 years. All participants had dual X-ray absorptiometry to determine their bone mineral density. The data collected included antiretroviral drug history and behavioral risk data Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. Inferential statistics were analyzed using multilevel binomial longitudinal Markov chain Monte Carlo mixed multivariate regression modelling using the rstanarm package.One hundred ninety nine adults were enrolled with equal representation of males and females. The mean age was 39.5 (SD 8.5) years. Mean durations on anti-retroviral treatment was 12.1 (SD 1.44) years, CD4 cell count was 563.9 cells/mm3. 178 (89.5%) had viral suppression with <50 viral copies/ml. There were 4 (2.0%) and 36 (18%) participants with low bone mass of the hip and lumbar spine respectively. Each unit increase in body mass index was associated with a significant reduction in the odds for low bone mineral density of the hip and lumbar spine. The duration on and exposure to the various antiretroviral medications had no significant effect on the participant’s odds for developing low bone mass. All the coefficients of the variables in a multivariable model for either hip or lumbar spine bone mass were not significant.These results provide additional evidence that patients on long term ART achieve bone mass stabilization. Maintaining adequate body weight is important in maintaining good bone health in people on antiretroviral therapy.
- Medical and Health Sciences