Hybrid E-Learning for Rural Secondary Schools in Uganda: Co- Evolution in Triple Helix Processes
Lating, Peter Okidi
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Rural secondary schools in Uganda perform poorly in Science and Mathematics due to lack of functional science laboratories and libraries. Furthermore, it is difficult for such schools to attract and retain good, committed and qualified Science and Mathematics teachers. Arua is one such District. It has two advanced level girls’ secondary schools- Muni and Ediofe. Hybrid e-learning was introduced in both schools for the benefit of 29 students who were taking either Mathematics or Physics or both. Local content for the production of interactive multimedia CD-ROMs were developed based on the national syllabus using senior teachers from Makerere College School in Kampala. The students effectively used the CDs for six months in 2007 and were repeatedly externally examined by Makerere College teachers, Arua District Examinations Committee and the Uganda National Examinations Board. The longitudinal data collected were analysed using multilevel methods. The results showed that 41% of the students passed and were eligible for university admission. However, after extrapolation of the performance of the students over twelve months, up to 72% of the students would have passed. The paper is discussed by linking the study to its contribution towards the achievement of international and national obligations of Uganda. Co-evolutions of the study into triple helix processes and ‘Mode 2’ knowledge production are also discussed. The paper concludes that it is possible to implement hybrid e-learning financially constrained rural secondary schools. However, when carrying out research in the context of the problem, co-evolutions in triple helix processes and Mode 2 production of knowledge are likely to happen.